HE has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise...

This charge goes to the heart of one of the fundamental disagreements between the American colonists and the British government. Upon those occasions when their representative assemblies were dissolved, the people of the various colonies often formed special conventions for the purpose of passing laws and electing representatives to the Continental Congress. The people understood that their right of representation arises from their equal liberty with all other human beings; that equal liberty requires that no one has the right to rule another without that other's consent. That means that the right of representation in the lawmaking body, the legislature, depended, not upon the caprice of their governors, but originated with the people. If the King disbanded their legislatures, for whatever reason, the colonists believed that the right of self-government reverted to the people, and that they would then be justified in doing whatever they deemed necessary to reestablish representative government, even to the point of calling special conventions to govern them.

The reference to "Dangers of Invasion from without, and Convulsions within," recalls the Founders' understanding that life, liberty, and property are endangered when men live outside of government--in a "state of nature." In the state of nature, human beings have the right to form governments to protect themselves, in whatever manner they deem best.